FAQ: What is the standard of value? Part 2 of 2

In our last post, we started a discussion of standard of value, giving a brief overview and explaining Fair Market Value. In this post, we’ll cover book value, intrinsic value and investment value. The following is an excerpt from pages 90-93 of “Exit Insight: Getting to ‘Sold!’” Book value: The third type of valuation standard is Book Value, which is actually an accounting term. Book Value is not often used in a business valuation because the value as registered in the company’s financial books is not necessarily a true representation of the entity’s value. Book Value is derived from a business’s balance sheet of assets, liabilities, and the owner’s equity. Here is a formula that represents the relationship of these elements: Assets = Liabilities + Owners Equity Continuing this explanation, you’ll see in the formula below that Book Value equals the business’s net assets minus its liabilities as measured by historical costs. (Net assets are assets at historical costs minus accumulated depreciation, amortization and any depletion.) Book Value = Assets – Liabilities Yet another way of understanding Book Value is that it is the owner’s equity: Owner’s Equity = Assets – Liabilities Book Value = Owner’s Equity Intrinsic value: To determine the Intrinsic Value of a business, a valuator will compare the difference between the business’s value as calculated through a valuation with the value of the business being traded in the open market. Expressing this numerically, if Acme, Inc. is trading in the market at $50.00 per share, but the value of the company is $75.00 per share when analyzed by a valuation professional, then Acme, Inc. has...

FAQ: What is the standard of value? Part 1 of 2

One of Synergetic Finance’s services is to provide company valuations to business owners. Because performing a business valuation can be complex, Synergetic Finance founder and author Joseph M. Maas explains how it works and what the standard of value means in his book, “Exit Insight: Getting to ‘Sold!’” The following is an excerpt from pages 87-90. The Standard of Value Determining the value of a business is a complicated task because there are different standards of value. Your valuation advisor must be knowledgeable in selecting the value standard that best suits your purpose because the conclusions of one standard will be quite different from the conclusions of another, and the material difference is likely to be substantial. For example, when appraising the value of a business for the purpose of a third party sale, ‘investment value’ is the appropriate choice. But, if appraising a business by order of a court for litigation purposes, then the standard of value will be defined by statute. In addition, if the wrong standard is applied, the conclusions will invalidate the entire proceeding. There are five standards of value common in valuation proceedings. This review will provide a more complete understanding of how businesses are valued, affording you a broader knowledge of how your business, or the one you wish to acquire, will be analyzed and judged. The figure below shows four of these standards and provides only a simple representation of why one or another might be a favored choice given a particular situation. Types of Value               Fair Market Value (FMV): The most common definition of...

Exit Insight: sale proceeds from your business

The following is an excerpt from “Exit Insight: Getting to Sold!” (pp. 157-158) available on Amazon.com and Merrell Publishing: The third element contributing substantially to your retirement lifestyle is the money you receive from the sale of your business. Most business owners do not know the true value of their business, heavily overestimating its worth as we have mentioned repeatedly. This is a huge detriment because if you do not know its value, you are unable to calculate whether or not you are due for a dear or a dire retirement. The after-tax proceeds from the sale of your business are critical to your retirement comfort. Most business owners assume a happy ending, foolishly confident that a buyer will be ready and waiting to purchase the business at the asking price when the day comes. Yet the chances of that happening are remote without preparation and planning. Just as you would dress up your home for curb appeal, fix the leaks, mow the backyard and put flowers on the dining room table, your business may require several years of carefully considered adjustments to prepare it for sale, so it stands out from the flood of other businesses begging to be bought. Consulting with a master financial planner trained in understanding a variety of ways to strategically synthesize the fiscal tools available to you for reducing taxes, improving your business’s appeal, increasing your portfolio’s value, and providing the most funds for your retirement lifestyle is the most lucrative and sensible investment you can make. Whether your financial accordion’s bellows need some steady pushing, the tone chamber requires an adjustment, or...

Long-term care insurance explained: part 2

In our most recent blog post, we introduced you to long-term care insurance and explained risk management and how to evaluate a policy, including factors to consider. We continue our discussion below, beginning with benefit flexibility. Benefit flexibility A comprehensive policy may be purchased that covers the individual in a nursing home, adult day care center, assisted living facility, his or her own home, or just about any other setting. Or a nursing home only or home care only policy may be purchased. Most policies will pay 100% of the daily benefit for skilled care, but many policies will reduce the percentage they pay if care is received for custodial care. Some policies will also reduce the benefits depending on where the care is received. For example, it will pay 100 percent for care received in a nursing home but only 80 percent for assisted living. Further, many polices allow the client to choose a lower coverage rate in order to keep the cost of the policy down. In this situation the policy may pay 100% of the daily benefit for nursing home coverage and the client could choose a 50% or 80% rate for home health care. As long as the coverage is affordable, it is wise to have a policy that pays 100% at any level of care and 100% regardless of the care facility. This way the client can choose where he/she will receive care at the time of claim as opposed to at time of application. Benefits are paid usually in one of two ways. A policy can be designed to pay for expenses actually...

Long-term care insurance explained: part 1

As a person ages, insurance for long-term care will be a welcome lower cost solution as current costs for care in a nursing home is about $70,000 annually. Our elder population is growing as the Baby Boomers enter their retirement years; before long there will be a significant impact on end-of-life health issues, and mortality rates will increase as this generation becomes ill and dies. Elderly people typically require assistance with daily activities such as eating, bathing, dressing, etc. This type of care is called long-term care, and may be administered by family members, or in a variety of assisted living facilities. Because the costs for long-term care can be exorbitant and can quickly deplete assets, and because standard health insurance policies exclude long-term care benefits, long-term care insurance can mitigate the effect of excessive expenses. Risk management Long term care insurance is available to manage the risk of enormous expenses, typically in the later years of a person’s life when they are living on a fixed income. The risk is great, because most people will not be able to afford the exorbitant cost of the care they may need, and their entire estate can be consumed. Some careful thinking about and planning for this very likely situation is mandatory. An analysis of the risks associated with long-term care reveals that the only choices available to an individual considering the financial impact of elderly needs are purchasing an insurance policy, or self-funding the costs. A third choice, dispersing your estate to rely on the resources and mercies of Medicaid, is an unappealing alternative. There are three categories of people...

What is fair market value (FMV)?

The most common definition of value used in the business valuation process is Fair Market Value. Its popularity is based on IRS Revenue Ruling 59-60, which is the basis for all federal tax decisions, and is used by the IRS and the courts. Because of its governmental favor, valuation professionals gain valuable guidance on performing the valuation. Here is the wording of IRS Revenue Ruling 59-60, defining Fair Market Value: “The price at which the property would change hands between a willing buyer and a willing seller, when the former is not under any compulsion to buy and the latter is not under any compulsion to sell, bother parties having reasonable knowledge of relevant facts.” Another worthy definition of FMV is voiced by the International Glossary of Business Valuation Terms, available on the American Institute of CPAs website: “The price, expressed in terms of cash equivalents, at which property would change hands between a hypothetical willing and able buyer and a hypothetical willing and able seller, acting at arm’s length in an open and unrestricted market, when neither is under compulsion to buy or sell and when both have reasonable knowledge of the relevant facts.” The preceding text is an excerpt from author Joseph M. Maas’ book “Exit Insight: Getting to ‘Sold!’” pp. 89, available online at Merrell Publishing or Amazon.com. Fair market value is one of five types of ways your business could be valued. The others are fair value, book value, intrinsic value and investment value. We’ll cover these in future posts. For more information on this topic, please consult Maas’ book “Exit Insight: Getting to ‘Sold!’”...